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All ISO 17025 calibrated - 2 Year Warranty
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Article originally published in Cutting Tool Engineering.
By, David Conigliaro March 1, 2014 - 10:45am
The well-established concept of radial chip thinning (RCT) provides compelling productivity-enhancing benefits, but is still not widely applied. RCT occurs when the DOC is less than the radius of a round milling insert and chip thickness is less than the programmed feed per tooth.
This means a higher programmed feed rate is needed to achieve a particular chip thickness, measured in ipt. In other words, the programmed feed rate can be higher because of chip thinning.
Many programmers and machinists are afraid to increase the feed, a fear usually based on an unfortunate previous experience. However, the industry trend is to step-down significantly deeper during machining, greatly reducing step-over.
Step-overs have been typically much more than 50 percent of a tool’s width because end users tend to take shallow step-downs, whereas deep step-downs require reduced step-overs. It’s important to note RCT doesn’t comes into play when applying less than half the tool’s width.
Toolpaths programmed with Mastercam’s Dynamic Machining suite produce radial chip thinning (top), whereas a traditional toolpath (above) doesn’t enable the productivity-enhancing benefits RCT provides.
New CAM toolpaths and cutting tool designs, such as those used in Mastercam’s Dynamic Machining suite and Iscar’s High-Efficiency Machining tools, push the advantages of RCT to its practical limit.
None of this was possible until all the elements—including cutting tools, machine tools and CAM toolpaths—caught up to each other a few years ago. Therefore, now is the time to consider RCT for your operations.
Variable-pitch tools, in particular, have virtually eliminated harmonics during machining, and advances in tool coatings enable them to withstand temperatures up to 900° F (482° C). In addition, machine tools are faster and CAM toolpaths are producing movements conducive to full-depth cutting.
On the CAM side, local resellers can demonstrate how to gain efficiencies. As a result, machine shops are applying RCT to improve productivity 30 to 200 percent by reducing cycle times. They are also reducing costs via longer, more predictable tool life and less wear and tear on machine tools.
For example, one of our customers was consuming 70 minutes cutting pockets in mold bases. It was taking shallow step-downs and aggressive step-overs while running at high feed rates. We exchanged their tool with an Iscar tool made of higher-quality carbide designed for high feeds and reduced cycle time to 45 minutes.
Next, we applied the Dynamic Machining toolpath calculations—stepping all the way down—and replaced the customer’s traditional roughing operation.
Time to cut the pockets fell to 12 minutes, an improvement of nearly 500 percent.
The combination of changing the tool and its motion also reduces tool cost per part, because tools last longer. Another money-saving aspect with these advanced machining techniques is coolant isn’t usually required for heat removal when cutting most steels if the speeds and feeds are correct. Instead, chips are simply air-blasted away.
Dry machining actually extends tool life, because the heated tool is not being shocked when coolant repeatedly hits it, which breaks down the coating and causes premature tool failure.
It’s challenging for shops to try new approaches when the daily routine demands shipping high-quality work and current machining methods are achieving that. However, shops can do even better. All it requires is a conversation with your CAM reseller and tool vendor.
While the science of RCT can be confusing, the application is not. When the step-over is more than 45 percent, the productivity improvement will be modest. But the cycle-time reductions can be amazing when the step-over ranges from 10 to 35 percent.
Remember, new dynamic toolpaths ensure the machine will not shove a tool into a part corner or have it do a full-width cut. Give it a try!
The Sowa GS multi-tasking range of vises has been specially designed for 5-axis machines. Working on 5 sides of the workpiece, it allows the best optimization of the machining cycle. Thanks to the compact design this kind of vise can be installed on all machining centers.
These vises have the highest accuracy in positioning and alignment (± 0.02mm) due to ground rack teeth on both the base and the fixed jaws.
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Tavares, FL February 4th, 2020 – GWS Tool Group is pleased to announce it has acquired North American Tool Corporation (NATC). They represent the second add-on acquisition in 2020 for GWS.
With the addition of NATC, GWS further strengthens its reputation as the premier multi-disciplinary manufacturer of high-performance custom cutting tools in the marketplace today.
“NATC is an exciting add for us,” said Rick McIntyre, GWS’ CEO. “Their customer service model is one of the best in the business and their focus in taps and threadmills fits in like a perfect puzzle piece to our dynamic and holistic offering. We are very excited to be continually expanding our value proposition for our customers with highly additive acquisitions like this. ” McIntyre continued.
“North American Tool is very excited to be joining GWS Tool Group, a company that embodies the attributes that have long made us successful,” said Curt Lansbery, NATC President & CEO.
“A customer-centric approach to business rooted in a commitment to quality and quick delivery marry perfectly with our model here at North American Tool. We have no doubt that this move to join GWS will be positive for our associates and will ensure the continued growth of the legacy that we have worked to develop.”
The team at NATC will continue to operate from the Illinois facility as a manufacturing arm of GWS Tool Group, and the company expresses intent toward continued investment in the facility, machinery and equipment and human resources. Customers of NATC are said to expect continuity of the NATC offering and customer service disposition under cover of the GWS ownership.
About GWS Tool Group
GWS Tool Group is a US-based, vertically integrated manufacturer of highly engineered custom, standard, and modified standard cutting tools, primarily servicing the aerospace and defense, power generation, automotive and medical sectors. GWS Tool Group has acquired multiple businesses in the course of its growth which now serves as the respective manufacturing divisions for the Company.
For more information, please visit www.GWSToolGroup.com or contact Drew Strauchen, EVP of Marketing & Business Development for GWS Tool Group, at email@example.com or 877.497.8665.
As a leading manufacturer of high quality Rotary Tooling and Machine Vises GS Tooling is known for providing the best quality to our customers. Each GS Live Center is of the highest quality and manufactured to the industry’s tightest specifications. All this and still priced 40-50% below the leading brand names.
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Have you ever had a tapping job that was so troublesome that it caused heartburn or acid indigestion due to broken taps, bad finish, short tap life, over or undersized threads, etc.?
One way of avoiding or alleviating such a condition is accomplished with the use of a tap feature called “relief”. The definition of “relief” according to Marian Webster, is removal or lightening of something oppressive, painful, or distressing. For a tap, “relief” is the reducing of surface contact between the tap/tap feature and the part being tapped. Surface contact generates unwanted heat causing the issues mentioned above. Depending on the tap feature, relief is applied in a direction that is, radially, around the tap, or axially, along the axis of the tap.
All taps require a minimum number of features to have relief for it to cut, other reliefs are applied when the tapping application requires it. There are always tradeoffs when designing a tap, if a relief is applied or it’s amount is greater than necessary, it can cause the tap to run free or loose to a point it will cause heartburn or acid indigestion by producing issues mentioned above.
Relieved features that are always necessary on a tap are:
Chamfer, the tapered threads at the front of the tap. The crests or major diameter of the chamfered threads are radially relieved from the cutting edge to the heel of the land. Without this relief it would be like cutting a tomato with the non-sharp side of a knife, you can imagine the results of that. When looking at a taps chamfer, relief results in the crest width being wider at the cutting edge and narrowing towards the heel;
Back Taper, a slight gradual reduction of the taps thread form including it’s major, pitch and minor diameters. It starts at the chamfered end of the tap and continues axially for the length of thread towards the shank end.
Additional features that can be relieved
Thread Relief, a radial reduction of the taps major and pitch diameters from the cutting edge to the heel. Relieving of the pitch diameter results in the minor diameter being relieved as well due to the manufacturing process whereas the major diameter is relieved separately. The application of the major or pitch diameter relief is normally applied separately but both can be done in combination. Relief of pitch diameter is the most common followed by the major diameter. Thread relief is applied when Back Taper alone is not enough to prevent surface contact when tapping materials that close in and squeezes the tap like stainless steel. The rate of reduction from the cutting edge to the heel is based on the material being tapped and, in some cases, the tapping application.
There are two common types of Thread Reliefs:
The reliefs we have discussed so far are applied during the tap manufacturing and other than the chamfer relief cannot be added or changed. If you are in a bind and must ship parts but can’t wait for us to design, manufacture and ship the appropriate tap, there are additional types of relief that can be applied that may work in a pinch. Sometimes referred to as a poor man’s relief, something you may be capable of doing in your shop without too much trouble to get you through a quick job, or until properly designed tools arrive.
The application of relief types and amounts are dependent on many factors such as material properties being tapped, style and size of tap, how the tap is being used (hand, machine, etc.) and application requirements, etc. By providing us with as much information about your tapping application, it will enable our engineers to design a tap with the proper relief. This will help alleviate troublesome heartburn or acid indigestion.
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Getting a good understanding of the definitions of the parts of a tap will help you to better understand the functions of tap designs. Special thanks to North American Tool for letting us share their short and simple explanations!
Minimum clearance between two mating parts; the prescribed variations from the basic size.
ANGLE OF THREAD
The angle included between the sides of the thread measured in an axial plane.
The imaginary straight line that forms the longitudinal centerline of the tool or threaded part.
A gradual decrease in the diameter of the thread form on a tap from the chamfered end of the land towards the back which creates a slight radial relief in the threads.
BASE OF THREAD
The bottom section of the thread; the greatest section between the two adjacent roots.
The theoretical or nominal standard size from which all variations are derived by application of allowances and tolerances.
The tapering of the threads at the front end of each land of a tap by cutting away and relieving the crest of the first few teeth to distribute the cutting action over several teeth; Taper taps are chamfered 7-10 threads; plug tapsare chamfered 3-5 threads; semi-bottoming (or modified bottoming) taps are chamfered 2-2.5 threads; bottom-ing taps are chamfered 1-2 threads; taper pipe taps are chamfered 2-3.5 threads.
The gradual decrease in land height from cutting edge to heel on the chamfered portion, to provide clearance for the cutting action as the tap advances.
The top surface joining the two sides or flanks of the thread; the crest of an external thread is at its major diameter, while the crest of an internal thread is at its minor diameter.
The leading side of the land in the direction of cutting rotation on which the chip forms.
The longitudinal channels formed in a tap to create cutting edges on the thread profile, and to provide chip spaces and cutting fluid passages.
The edge of the land opposite the cutting edge.
HEIGHT OF THREAD
The distance, measured radially, between the crest and the base of a thread.
The angle made by the advance of the thread as it wraps around an imaginary cylinder.
The undercut on the face of the teeth.
The inclination of a concave cutting face, usually specified either as Chordal Hook or Tangential Hook.
INTERRUPTED THREAD TAP
A tap having an odd number of lands with alternate teeth along the thread helix removed. In some cases alternate teeth are removed only for a portion of the thread length.
The part of the tap body which remains after the flutes are cut, and on which the threads are finally ground. The threaded section between the flutes of a tap.
The axial distance a tap will advance along its axis in one revolution. On a single start, the lead and the pitch are identical; on a double start, the lead is twice the pitch.
Commonly known as the “outside diameter.” It is the largest diameter of the thread.
Commonly known as the “root diameter.” It is the small-est diameter of the thread.
PERCENT OF THREAD
One-half the difference between the basic major diameter and the actual minor diameter of an internal thread, divided by the basic thread height, expressed as a percentage.
The distance from any point on a screw thread to a cor-responding point on the next thread, measured parallel to the axis and on the same side of the axis. The pitch equals one divided by the number of threads per inch.
On a straight thread, the pitch diameter is the diameter of the imaginary co-axial cylinder...the surface of which would pass through the thread profiles at such points as to make the width of the groove equal to one-half of the basic pitch. On a perfect thread this occurs at the point where the widths of the thread and groove are equal. On a taper thread, the pitch diameter at a given position on the thread axis is the diameter of the pitch cone at that position.
The angular relationship of the straight cutting face of a tooth with respect to a radial line through the crest of the tooth at the cutting edge.
RELIEF (or Thread Relief)
The removal of metal from behind the cutting edge to provide clearance and reduce friction between the part being threaded and the threaded land.
The bottom surface joining the sides of two adjacent threads, and is identical with or immediately adjacent to the cylinder or cone from which the thread projects.
A flute with uniform axial lead in a spiral path around the axis of a tap.
The angular fluting in the cutting face of the land at the chamfered end; formed at an angle with respect to the tap axis of opposite hand to that of rotation. Its length is usually greater than the chamfer length and its angle with respect to the tap axis is usually made great enough to direct the chips ahead of the taps cutting action.
A flute that forms a cutting edge lying in an axial plane.
In producing a tap to given specifications, tolerance is:
(a.) the total permissible variation of a size;
(b.) the difference between the limits of size.
(Tribune News Service) — The U.S. Defense Department office that oversees development of the F-35 Lightning II combat jet has awarded project leader Lockheed Martin a $1.9 billion contract to support and sustain the expanding global F-35 fleet through 2020.
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